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Ductography (also called galactography or ductogalactography) is a special type of contrast-enhanced mammography used for imaging the breast ducts. Ductography can aid in diagnosing the cause of an abnormal nipple discharge and is valuable in diagnosing intraductal papillomas and other conditions. Papillomas are wart-like, non-cancerous tumors with branchings or stalks that have grown inside the breast duct; they are the most common cause of nipple discharge.
Nipple discharge can be caused by non-cancerous tumors or cancer. However, the majority of nipple discharge is due to benign (non-cancerous) causes. In particular, discharge that is yellow, green, blue, or black in color is usually categorized as less suspicious. For example, blue or black discharge is often associated with benign cysts. Discharge that is bloody or clear in color is categorized as more suspicious, but further investigation usually results in a benign diagnosis. Bilateral nipple discharge (discharge occurring from both breasts) is usually benign and does not typically require investigation with ductography or other procedures. However, all persistent discharges should be reported to a physician for evaluation.